OUR PROCESS

  • Assessment

  • Diagnosis

  • Treatment

  • Long-term Care

Conditions Treated

Seizures

A seizure occurs when there’s abnormal electrical activity in the brain.Seizures may go virtually unnoticed. Or, in severe cases, they may produce a change or loss of consciousness and involuntary muscle spasms called convulsions. Seizures usually come on suddenly and vary in duration and severity. A seizure may be a one-time event, or you may have seizures repeatedly. Recurrent seizures are called epilepsy, or a seizure disorder. Less than one in 10 people who has a seizure develops epilepsy.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a chronic (long-lasting) medical condition marked by recurrent epileptic seizures. An epileptic seizure is an event of altered brain function caused by abnormal or excessive electrical discharges from brain cells. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting up to 1% of the U.S. population.

Headaches/Migraines

Headache is a common reason for pediatric patients to seek medical care. Headaches can result from any of a number of causes, including genetic predisposition, trauma, an intracranial mass, a metabolic or vascular disease, or sinusitis. Recognition that pediatric headaches can result from primary and secondary causes is crucial to their treatment.

Headaches aren’t just an adult problem. They’re very common for children and teens. In one study, 56% of boys and 74% of girls between ages 12 and 17 reported having a headache within the past month. Kids generally get the same types of headaches as adults do. By age 15, 5% of all kids have had migraines and 15% have had tension headaches.

You might worry that a child's headache is the sign of a more serious problem, like a brain tumor, but that’s not true for most of kids’ headaches. You can track their symptoms, find treatments, and help your child learn ways to feel better.

Pediatric Stroke

Stroke can happen to anyone at any time, including teenagers, children, newborns, and unborn babies. The risk of stroke in children is greatest in the first year of life and during the period of right before birth to right after birth. Stroke remains among the top 10 causes of death in children.

Head Trauma/Concussion

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, a fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain inside the skull. Although there may be cuts or bruises on the head or face, there may be no other visible signs of a brain injury.

You don't have to pass out (lose consciousness) to have a concussion. Some people will have obvious symptoms of a concussion, such as passing out or forgetting what happened right before the injury. But other people won't. With rest, most people fully recover from a concussion. Some people recover within a few hours. Other people take a few weeks to recover.

It's important to know that after a concussion the brain is more sensitive to damage. So while you are recovering, be sure to avoid activities that might injure you again.

In rare cases, concussions cause more serious problems. Repeated concussions or a severe concussion may lead to long-lasting problems with movement, learning, or speaking. Because of the small chance of serious problems, it is important to contact a doctor if you or someone you know has symptoms of a concussion.

Please check our ACE (Acute Concussion evaluation)-form prior to evaluation for Concussion.

Cerebral Palsy

While Cerebral Palsy (pronounced seh-ree-brel pawl-zee) is a blanket term commonly referred to as “CP” and described by loss or impairment of motor function, Cerebral Palsy is actually caused by brain damage. The brain damage is caused by brain injury or abnormal development of the brain that occurs while a child’s brain is still developing — before birth, during birth, or immediately after birth.

Cerebral Palsy affects body movement, muscle control, muscle coordination, muscle tone, reflex, posture and balance. It can also impact fine motor skills, gross motor skills and oral motor functioning.

Brain and Spine Tumors

Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). The tumors may be either benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer): Benign brain and spinal cord tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread into other tissues and may recur (come back)

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which primarily affect the neurons(The neuron is the basic working unit of the brain, a specialized cell designed to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. Neurons are cells within the nervous system that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells) in the human brain.

Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system which includes the brain and spinal cord. Neurons normally don’t reproduce or replace themselves, so when they become damaged or die they cannot be replaced by the body. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s disease.

Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and / or death of nerve cells. This causes problems with movement (called ataxias), or mental functioning (called dementias).

Neurocutaneous Syndrome

Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of neurological (brain, spine, and peripheral nerve) disorders that have cutaneous (skin) manifestations. These diseases are lifelong conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones. The most common disorders found in children are skin lesions.

The three most common types of neurocutaneous syndromes include the following:

  • Tuberous sclerosis (TS)
  • Neurofibromatosis (NF): Type I, Type II, and schwannomatosis
  • Sturge-Weber disease

Demyelinating Disorders

A demyelinating disease is any condition that results in damage to the protective covering (myelin sheath) that surrounds nerve fibers in your brain and spinal cord. When the myelin sheath is damaged, nerve impulses slow or even stop, causing neurological problems.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In this disorder, your immune system attacks the myelin sheath or the cells that produce and maintain it.

This causes inflammation and injury to the sheath and ultimately to the nerve fibers that it surrounds and may result in multiple areas of scarring (sclerosis).

Other types of demyelinating disease and their causes include:

  • Optic neuritis — inflammation of the optic nerve in one or both eyes
  • Neuromyelitis optica (Devic’s disease) — inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, especially of the optic nerve and spinal cord
  • Transverse myelitis — inflammation of the spinal cord
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis — inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy — rare, inherited metabolic disorders

Developmental Delays

It is an ongoing major or minor delay in the process of development. If your child is temporarily lagging behind, that is not called developmental delay. Delay can occur in one or many areas—for example, gross or fine motor, language, social, or thinking skills.

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors.

Autism statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identify around 1 in 68 American children as on the autism spectrum–a ten-fold increase in prevalence in 40 years.

ADHD/Learning Disability

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.

Treatment and Therapies
While there is no cure for ADHD, currently available treatments can help reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

Learning disabilities are neurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. They can also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory and attention. It is important to realize that learning disabilities can affect an individual’s life beyond academics and can impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace.

Tourette's Syndrome

Tourette Syndrome is one type of Tic Disorder. Tics are involuntary, repetitive movements and vocalizations. They are the defining feature of a group of childhood-onset, neurodevelopmental conditions known collectively as Tic Disorders and individually as Tourette Syndrome, Chronic Tic Disorder (Motor or Vocal Type), and Provisional Tic Disorder. The three Tic Disorders are distinguished by the types of tics present (motor, vocal/ phonic, or both) and by the length of time that the tics have been present.


Diagnostic Tests

EEG

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test used to detect abnormalities related to electrical activity of the brain.

This procedure tracks and records brain wave patterns. Small metal discs with thin wires (electrodes) are placed on the scalp and record signals to a computer. Normal electrical activity in the brain makes a recognizable pattern. Through an EEG, we can look for abnormal patterns that indicate seizures and other dysfunctions.

Why an EEG test is done

The most common reason for an EEG is to diagnose and monitor seizure disorders. EEGs can also help to identify causes of other problems such as sleep disorders and changes in behavior.

How the test is done
Most EEGs are performed right here in our office. Your child will be asked to lie on a bed or sit in a chair. The technician will attach electrodes to different locations on the scalp using adhesive paste. Each electrode is connected to an amplifier and EEG recording machine. The electrical signals from the brain are converted into wavy lines on a computer screen and stored digitally. Your child will be asked to lie still because movement can alter the results.

TOVA

The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) is an objective, neurophysiological measure of attention that helps us diagnose attention disorders.

The TOVA is based on the concept that children with ADHD have greater-than-average difficulty sustaining attention to dull or repetitive tasks. The TOVA assigns such a task, measures responses, and compares the results to those of children without attention disorders within the same age group.

The TOVA is similar to a computer game, so it is easy for young children to grasp. You can sit quietly in the room while your child takes the test, or you can sit in the waiting room. If you choose to be in the testing room, it is important that you not distract your child, as this could affect the test results. The test takes approximately 30 minutes.